The impact of spatial and temporal shifts on Orontes River water quality parameters

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria

3 Department of Horticultural Sciences, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran



Orontes River is one of the most important rivers in Syria and a major source of water for drinking, irrigating, and industrial purposes. This research aims to study the effect of temporal and spatial changes on the water quality of the Orontes River and to assess its suitability for different uses. Seasonal water quality monitoring data for the period between 2010 and 2020 consisting of  21 quality parameters (EC, COD, BOD, TUR, DO, pH, NH4, Cl, Na, T, TSS, TDS, SS, FC, NO3-, PO4-3, K, Ca, Mg, SAR, TH) at 11 stations along the river basin were used. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis techniques to study the correlation between these indicators and to determine the least number of variables that affect water quality. MANOVA analysis was applied to the dataset to study the linear relationship between independent variables (seasons and stations) and dependent variables (quality parameters). The results showed that 9 and 14 water quality parameters were influenced by seasonal and spatial changes, respectively. Additionally, the combined effect of seasonal and spatial changes influenced EC, DO, COD, PO4-3, NO3-. Therefore, these water parameters can be considered useful in determining pollution severity and evaluating water management policies in the studied area.


Conflict of interest statement

The authors declared no conflict of interest.

Funding statement

The authors declared that no funding was received in relation to this manuscript.

Data availability statement

The authors declared that the used dataset can be obtained from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 25 February 2023
  • Receive Date: 03 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 08 December 2022
  • Accept Date: 15 February 2023
  • First Publish Date: 25 February 2023