Evaluation of tetraploid induction in forage sorghum cultivar “Omid-Bakhsh” using colchicine treatment

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Polyploidy induction can be used as a method to improve forage quality and crop yield. Additionally, autopolyploidy may play a key role in tolerance pathways of biotic and abiotic stresses, such as nutrient deficiency, drought, extreme temperatures, pests, and pathogens. Colchicine is widely used as a polyploidy inducer in plant species. To examine this ability in forage sorghum, the shoot meristems of four-day-old seedlings of “Omid-Bakhsh” sorghum cultivar were treated with colchicine. Three levels of colchicine concentration (0, 0.01, 0.1, and 0.2) and four-time periods (4, 8, 16, and 24 hours) were used. Morphological and cytological properties of treated and non-treated plants were assessed. Results showed that the polyploidy plants had a lesser height, leaf length and number of stomata compared to the normal plants; however, leaf width and thickness, stem diameter, pollen diameter, as well as stomatal length and width were significantly higher in polyploidy plants. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between treated plants and control in regards to the number of leaves.  Furthermore, the highest probability of polyploidy induction rate in “Omid-Bakhsh” cultivar was observed at 0.2% colchicine concentration and eight hours treatment as revealed by flow cytometry data. Protein analysis results showed a significant increase in protein content of polyploidy plants compared to control.

Keywords


  1. Chen ZJ. Molecular mechanisms of polyploidy and hybrid vigor. Trends Plant Sci. 2010;15(2):57-71. DOI
  2. Blakeslee AF, Avery AG. Methods of inducing doubling of chromosomes in plants: by treatment with colchicine. J. Hered. 1937;28(12):393-411. DOI
  3. Roy QJ. Sorghum improvement and the genetics of growth. Texas A&M University Press; 1974.
  4. Farsi, M., Ghaboli, M., Mahmoudnia, M., Plant Cytogenetics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications; 2009, PP:137-140-144.
  5. Allario T, Brumos J, Colmenero-Flores JM, Tadeo F, Froelicher Y, Talon M, Navarro L, Ollitrault P, Morillon R. Large changes in anatomy and physiology between diploid Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) and its autotetraploid are not associated with large changes in leaf gene expression. J. Exp. Bot. 2011;62(8):2507-19. DOI
  6. Sanford JC. Ploidy manipulations. Methods in fruit breeding. 1983:100-23.
  7. Predieri S. Mutation induction and tissue culture in improving fruits. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 2001;64(2-3):185-210. DOI
  8. Wallaart TE, Pras N, Quax WJ. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type. Planta Med. 1999;65(08):723-8. DOI
  9. Doggett H. Tetraploid varieties of Sorghum vulgare. Nature. 1957;179(4563):786. DOI
  10. Arti P, Devi DR, Murty UR. Embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in forage sorghum Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench. Cereal Res. Commun. 1994;1:71-7.
  11. Saedi, M., Honarmand S.G., Resayi, A. Plant breeding through physiological traits, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications; 2015, P:185.
  12. Saharkhiz, MJ. The effects of some environmental factors and ploidy level on morphological and physiological characteristics of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) medicinal ornamental plant. PhD dissertation, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2007.
  13. Yaroyi, p. Evaluation of the effect of colchicine on morphological, physiological and effective materials characteristics of medicinal plant (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) M.Sc.Thesis Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2007.
  14. Hamill SD, Smith MK, Dodd WA. In vitro induction of banana autotetraploids by colchicine treatment of micropropagated diploids. Aust. J. Bot. 1992;40(6):887-96. DOI
  15. Funamoto T, Kondo K, Tatarenko IV, Gontcharov A, Verkholat VP, Smirnov SV. Intraspecific polyploidy of Parnassia palustris var. multiseta (Saxifragaceae sl) collected in Primorye and Altai Territories, Russia. Chromosom Bot. 2006;1(1):23-6. DOI
  16. Galbraith DW, Harkins KR, Maddox JM, Ayres NM, Sharma DP, Firoozabady E. Rapid flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle in intact plant tissues. Science. 1983;220(4601):1049-51. DOI
  17. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 1976;72(1-2):248-54. DOI
  18. Elyazid DM, El-Shereif AR. In vitro induction of polyploidy in Citrus reticulata Blanco. Am J Plant Sci. 2014;5(11):1679. DOI
  19. Chen ZJ. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol.. 2007;58:377-406. DOI
  20. Franzke CJ, Ross JG. Colchicine induced variants in sorghum. J. Hered. 1952;43(3):107-15. DOI
  21. Sari N, Abak K, Pitrat M. Comparison of ploidy level screening methods in watermelon: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai. Sci. Hortic. 1999;82(3-4):265-77. DOI
  22. Hosseini, H., Chehrazi, M., Nabati Ahmadi, D., Mahmmodi Sorestani, M. Effect of colchicine treatment on the autotetraploidy induction and morpho-physiological traits alteration in Catharanthus roseus cv. alba. Plant Production Technology. 2014;5(2): 55-62.
  23. Omidbaigi R, Mirzaee M, Hassani ME, Sedghi Moghadam M. Induction and identification of polyploidy in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) medicinal plant by colchicine treatment. Int J Plant Prod. 2012;4(2):87-98. DOI
  24. Sarvella P, Meyer JR, Owings A. A Scotch Tape Method for Counting or Measuring Stomata 1. Crop Science. 1961;1(1):81-2,.
  25. Gao SL, Chen BJ, Zhu DN. In vitro production and identification of autotetraploids of Scutellaria baicalensis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 2002;70(3):289-93. DOI
  26. Hosseini, B., Javanbakht, S. Effects of in vitro polyploidy induction on some morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Tahqiqati Zhinitik Islahi Giyahani Martaii Jangalii Iran. 2017;25(1).
  27. Chen C, Hou X, Zhang H, Wang G, Tian L. Induction of Anthurium andraeanum “Arizona” tetraploid by colchicine in vitro. Euphytica. 2011;181(2):137-45. DOI
  28. Vanitha J, Jiang S, Ramachandran S. Impact of Colchicine Treatment on Sorghum bicolor BT×623. Mol Plant Breed. 2013;4. DOI
  29. Watrous SB, Wimber DE. Artificial induction of polyploidy in Paphiopedilum. Lindleyana. 1988;3(4):177-83.
  30. Tandon SL, Bhutani K. Morphological and cytological studies of colchicine-induced tetraploids inTorenia fournieri lind. Genetica. 1965;36(1):439-45.
  31. Jones JR, Ranney TG, Eaker TA. A novel method for inducing polyploidy in Rhododendron seedlings. J. Amer. Rhododendron Soc. 2008;62(3):130-5.
  32. Koutoulis A, Roy AT, Price A, Sherriff L, Leggett G. DNA ploidy level of colchicine-treated hops (Humulus lupulus L.). Sci. Hortic. 2005;105(2):263-8. DOI
  33. Tambong JT, Sapra VT, Garton S. In vitro induction of tetraploids in colchicine-treated cocoyam plantlets. Euphytica. 1998;104(3):191-7. DOI
  34. Wan Y, Petolino JF, Widholm JM. Efficient production of doubled haploid plants through colchicine treatment of anther-derived maize callus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 1989;77(6):889-92. DOI
  35. Borgheei SF, Sarikhani H, Chaichi M, Kashi A. In vitro induction of polyploidy in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Iran. J. Med. Aromat. Plants. 2010;26(3).
  36. Ahmadi MM, Sarikhani H, Chaichi M, Kashi A. An Investigation in to Micropropagation and the Effect of Colchicine on In Vitro Ploidy Induction in Narcissus (Narcissus tazetta). Journal of Plant Production Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture. 2013;35(4).
  37. Osborn TC, Pires JC, Birchler JA, Auger DL, Chen ZJ, Lee HS, Comai L, Madlung A, Doerge RW, Colot V, Martienssen RA. Understanding mechanisms of novel gene expression in polyploids. Trends in genetics. 2003;19(3):141-7. DOI