Adventitious shoot proliferation from callus of Gerbera jamesonii young leaf explant

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq


This study was conducted in the Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, University of Basrah, Iraq. Young leaves were used in this study as explants that were taken from Gerbera Jamesonii, Double Dutch and Malibu cultivars. The aim of micro-propagation of the gerbera plant because it is one economically important of the cut flower. The results showed that the Double Dutch cultivar was significant superior in recording the highest response percentage to callus induction and indirect shoot and root formation, number of shoots and roots and shoot length reached 70.00%, 90.20%, 99.70%, 7.60 shoots per 50 mg callus, 4.90 roots per shoot and 1.69 cm, respectively, compared to Malibu cultivar, which gave the lowest values. The concentration of 5.0 mg L-1 BA was significant superior compared to the other concentrations at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 mg L-1 BA, as it recorded the highest percentage of response to callus induction reaching 97.20%, while the concentration of 1.0 mg L-1 BA recorded the lowest percentage of response, reaching 22.50%. The MS medium supplied with 1.0 mg. L-1 BA was significant superior compared to the other media that supplied with different concentrations of BA, which recorded the highest percentage response to proliferation of adventitious shoots from induced callus and the number and length of shoots, which was 93.30%, 9.40 shoots per 50 mg callus and 1.94 cm, respectively. But the callus that cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA recorded the lowest values. While, the MS media that supplied with 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mg L-1BA did not lead to regeneration of shoots from induced callus of young leaves. The results showed that the MS medium supplied with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA had the highest percentage of rooting response and number of adventitious roots of 99.60% and 7.10 roots per shoot, respectively.


  1. Singh VK, Prasad VM, Kumari S, Rajoria P, Misra P. Identification of the suitable hardening protocol and hardening medium in micropropagation of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017;6(7):2476-84. DOI
  2. Gao T, Hind DJ. Gerbera Linnaeus. Flora China. 2011;20:13-21.
  3. Kanwar JK, Kumar S. In vitro propagation of Gerbera-A review. Hort. Sci. 2008;35(1):35-44. DOI
  4. Teeri TH, Elomaa P, Kotilainen M, Albert VA. Mining plant diversity: Gerbera as a model system for plant developmental and biosynthetic research. BioEssays. 2006;28(7):756-67. DOI
  5. Chung MY, Kim MB, Chung YM, Nou IS, Kim CK. In vitro shoot regeneration and genetic transformation of the gerbera (Gerbera hybrida Hort.) cultivar'Gold Eye'. J. Plant Biotechnol. 2016;43(2):255-60. DOI
  6. Parthasarathy VA, Nagaraju V. In-vitro propagation in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus. Indian J Hortic. 1999;56(1):82-5.
  7. Shelahi SA, Majeed DM, Hassan SM. Propagation of Gerbera (Gerbera Jasmonii Bolus) by using a tissue culture technique. J. Biotechnol. Res. Cent. 2013;7(1):50-8.
  8. Orlikowska T, Nowak E, Marasek A, Kucharska D. Effects of growth regulators and incubation period on in vitro regeneration of adventitious shoots from gerbera petioles. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult. 1999 Nov;59(2):95-102.
  9. Aswath C, Deepa SM, Choudhary ML. Commercial multiplication of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) through in vitro shoot tip culture. J. Ornam. Hortic. 2003;6(4):303-9.
  10. Son NV, Mokashi AN, Hegde RV, Patil VS, Lingaraju S. Response of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) varieties to micropropagation. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2011;24(3).
  11. Hussein GM, Ismail IA, El Saied Hashem M, El Miniawy SM, Abdallah NA. In vitro regeneration of gerbera. Landbauforschung Volkenrode. 2008;58(1/2):97.
  12. Shabanpour KA, Sharifi A, Bagheri A, Moshtaghi N. Effect of genotypes and culture medium on shoot regeneration and proliferation of Gerbera jamesonii. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2011;10(57):12211-7.
  13. Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 1962 Jul;15(3):473-97. DOI
  14. Al-Rawi KM, Khalaf Allah AM. Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. Dar Al Kutub for Printing and Publishing, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq. 2000;488.
  15. Davies PJ. Plant hormones: biosynthesis, signal transduction, action!. Springer Science & Business Media; 2004.
  16. Ibrahim MA, Daraj IA. Micro propagation of dahlia plants (Dahlia variabilis). Direct and indirect organogenesis techniques. Adv. Agric. Bot. 2015 Jun 1;7(1):28-35.
  17. Hossain SA. Study of in vitro regeneration protocol of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) grown in Bangladesh. Doctoral dissertation, BRAC University. 2018.
  18. Hopkins WG. Introduction to plant physiology. John Wiley and Sons; 1999. DOI
  19. Ibrahim MA. In vitro plant regeneration of local pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.) via direct and indirect organogenesis. Genet. Plant Physiol. 2012;2(3-4):187-91.
  20. Kadu AR. In vitro micropropagation of gerbera using auxillary bud. Asian J. Biol. Sci. 2013;8(1):15-8.

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 24 July 2021
  • Receive Date: 15 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 23 July 2021